Yugoslavia and the Hallstein doctrine
In October 1957 Yugoslavia recognised East Germany. The Federal Republic of Germany, in accordance with its Hallstein doctrine, which said that only Bonn can represent the entire german nation and that a recognition of East Germany is a hostile act, aborted diplomatic relations with Belgrade. The research topic is to analyse Belgrades intentions towards the East, especially Soviet Union, since the answer to the question why Belgrade recognised East Berlin is expected there.
Dusan Popov and the Double Cross System
Dusan Popov, a Yugoslav, was a british double agent pretending to work for the germans, but being in fact a british spy. Popov was together with the Catalan Joan Pujol Garcia the top agent of the Double-Cross System, the most sophisticated and largest wartime system of deception and counter-espionage which was ever carried out. The goal was to deceive the german High Command about the site of the landing of allied troops from Norway to Mediterranean with the aim to keep strong german troops as far as possible from the true landing site in Normandy (operation Overlord). The operation was run by the british MI5 under direct supervision of Winston Churchill who was informed about all details – even the silly ones, which were delivered especially by Popov. The surprise in London was not small when they realised that the german side still did not detect the deception even after the landing on 6 June 1944. London decided to keep the german High Command in the belief that there will be a second landing around Pas-de-Calais. For that information in particular Hitler granted Pujol and his team an Medal of the Iron Cross. The Double-Cross System was a full success – but there were also very critical setbacks.
Serbian civil society
Non-governmental organizations play a very important role, especially in societies in democratisation processes. In particular case, in Serbia, the civil society had to transform itself from a political role, which it played during the 1990’s into a role which it has nowadays. The aim of the project was to analyse and support this transformation process. The project was realised through the Belgrade NGO Center.
Serbian diaspora in Germany, Austria and Switzerland
Serbian migration to Germany started as part of global labor migration from Yugoslavia to Western Europe from late 1960’s to 1980’s. Today the serbian state budget practically consists of more than 50% of remittances, which migrants send to their families in Serbia. The object was to determine the present situation especially in education and to propose how the serbian state can support its diaspora in the german speaking area in particular. The project was realised within the Ministry for Diaspora of the Republic of Serbia.
The origins of the Yugoslav co-existence doctrine
After the Second World War Yugoslavia was one of the strongest allies of the Soviet Union. This changed 1948, when the Soviet Union aborted almost all relations to Yugoslavia. The origin of this Soviet-Yugoslav split lied in the Second World War and the emergence of the Yugoslav resistance against german occupation. 1949 the yugoslav foreign minister Edvard Kardelj presented the yugoslav co-existence doctrine in the UN in New York. Subsequently Yugoslavia improved its relationship to western countries in the period following 1948, especially to the United States. It even participated in the Balkan pact together with two NATO-Members Greece and Turkey – and got indirectly under the shelter of the NATO. The situation changed again when Stalin died and Khrushchev visited Belgrade 1955.